In 1989, the City of Portage began a major groundwater cleanup effort, including groundwater recovery pumping. Efforts also began to connect downgradient residential properties from the landfill to Crockett Avenue to municipal water. In 1999, cleanup efforts were complete and the city began a comprehensive groundwater sampling and monitoring program, which continues today. All testing has been performed by a highly-qualified environmental consulting firm retained by the City of Portage, American Hydrogeology Corporation (AHC). With the emergence of PFAS across Michigan, the city began self-initiated and precautionary testing at the former landfill for PFAs in the spring of 2019. The city learned that there were concentrations of PFAS in the southwest corner of the site that exceeded drinking water health advisories. The city expanded the scope of testing, following accepted scientific protocols, to determine if the PFAS contamination was migrating off of the site.